The Bars of Martin Luther King Jr’s cell | Birmingham Civil Rights Institute | 2009
The bars of the prison cell from where Martin Luther King Jr wrote an open letter written on April 16, 1963, defending the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism, arguing that people have a moral responsibility to break unjust laws.
Martin Luther King Jr’s Chair | Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, GA | 2009
This chair is located in Martin Luther King Jr's private study at The Ebenezer Baptist Church.
The Reverend C.T. Vivian | Atlanta | 2009
The Reverend C.T. Vivian is a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and is a prominent Civil Rights Movement activist, Freedom Rider, and a proponent of non-violent direct action.
Elaine Brown | Savannah, GA | 2009
Elaine is the former Black Panther Party chairman. She held this position from 1974 to 1977.
Reverend Wheeler Parker, Jr. and Simeon Wright | Summit Argo, Illinois | 2009
On August 28, 1955 Wheeler Parker, Jr. and Simeon Wright witnessed the abduction of their 14-year-old cousin, Emmett Till in Mississippi. He was taken by two white males who accused Till of having whistled at a white woman. Till was tortured and murdered; his body was dumped in a river, where it was found three days later. Images of the open casket showing his disfigured body at the funeral in Chicago were published in newspapers across the nation and played a pivotal role in the rise of the Civil Rights Movement.
Black Power Button, Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC, 2009.
Free Bobby Button | Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC | 2009
This button refers to the imprisonment of Black Panthers' co-founder Bobby Seale who was convicted of contempt of court in 1969 during the trial of the “Chicago Eight."
Joseph A McNeil and Franklin E. McCain | Greensboro, North Carolina | 2009
Joseph and Franklin belonged to the ‘Greensboro Four’ – the first students who dared, in 1960, to sit at a “whites-only” lunch counter inside the Woolworth in Greensboro, North Carolina. This led to The Greensboro sit-ins, a series of nonviolent protests, which led to the Woolworth department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Harry Belafonte | NYC | 2009
Harold George "Harry" Belafonte, Jr. is an American singer, songwriter, actor and social activist. Belafonte was an early supporter of the civil rights movement in the 1950s, and one of Martin Luther King Jr.'s confidants.
Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. | Washington DC | 2009
Jesse Jackson is an American civil rights activist and Baptist minister.
Congressman John Lewis | Washington DC | 2010
Congressman John Lewis stands near the Lincoln Memorial where he gave a speech during The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The last surviving speaker from the March, he has represented Georgia’s Fifth Congressional District since 1986.
Kathleen Cleaver | Chicago, IL | 2009
Kathleen is the former national communications secretary for the Black Panther Party.
Ku Klux Klan costume, Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, 2009.
The Little Rock Nine | Little Rock Central High School, Little Rock, AR | 2009
Foom left: Jefferson Thomas, Minnijean Brown Trickey, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Elizabeth Eckford, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Terrence Roberts, Thelma Mothershed-Wair, Melba Beals, and Ernest Green. The nine registered at the high school in September, 1957, but were turned away by the Arkansas National Guard, on the orders of Governor Orval Faubus. They were able to attend classes only after President Eisenhower sent Army troops to escort them.
Malcolm X button | Smithsonian Museum, DC | 2009
This button was issued at the time of Malcolm X’s death on Feb. 21, 1965.
Muhammad Ali | Scottsdale, AR | 2009
Muhammad Ali refused to be drafted, and was stripped of his championship title and suspended from boxing. “Why should they ask me to put on a uniform and go ten thousand miles from home and drop bombs and bullets on brown people in Vietnam while so-called Negro people in Louisville are treated like dogs and denied simple human rights?” Ali's personal courage as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation.
March on Washington Banner | Smithsonian Museum | 2009
A banner used at The March on Washington in 1963.
Denise McNair’s Dress | McNair’s personal home museum, Birmingham AL | 2010.
On Sept. 15, 1963, a little over two weeks after the March on Washington four little girls—Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley and Carole Robertson—were killed in an explosion at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Al. The explosives were placed and discharged by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Chris and Maxine McNair, in front of the 16th Street Baptist Church Birmingham, AL | 2010
Chris and Maxine McNair at the church where their daughter Denise died, aged eleven.
The Telegram reporting MLK’s shooting, Smithsonian Museum, DC, 2009.
Judge Robert Carter | NYC | 2009
Judge Robert L. Carter worked for the N.A.A.C.P. Legal Defense and Educational Fund and presented its case in arguments leading to the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
Members of the S.C.L.C (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) | Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, GA | 2009
Clockwise from left: the Reverend Joseph Lowery, the Reverend C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, and the Reverend Fred Shuttleworth, at Martin Luther King, Jr’s church in Atlanta.
Daughters of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz | NYC | 2009
From left to right: Qubilah, Gamilah, Malaak, Attallah, and Ilyasah Shabazz.
Olympians Tommie Smith & John Carlos | NYC | 2009.
Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who gave the Black Power salute on the podium at the Mexico City Olympics, in 1968.